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Updated: 5 hours 27 min ago

Cochrane is supporting a culture of evidence

Tue, 09/29/2020 - 18:34

Generating a culture of evidence means creating an environment in which evidence is always an important part of health-care decision making; it's valued, understood, and used.

In a culture of evidence, Cochrane can and does have an impact beyond the world of research. We work closely with our partners to focus our work on the most  important questions for decision makers, involve external partners in creating evidence, disseminate evidence in formats decision makers can understand, and advocate for using evidence for informing policy and decision making. 

Learn more about what is a culture of evidence and how Cochrane can support it: 

Tuesday, September 29, 2020

Featured Review: Thoracic imaging tests for the diagnosis of COVID-19

Tue, 09/29/2020 - 16:55

How accurate is chest imaging for diagnosing COVID-19?

Why is this question important?

People with suspected COVID-19 need to know quickly whether they are infected, so that they can self-isolate, receive treatment, and inform close contacts. Currently, formal diagnosis of COVID-19 infection requires laboratory analysis of blood or nose and throat samples. The laboratory test, called RT-PCR, requires specialist equipment and takes at least 24 hours to produce a result. Further, RT-PCR is not completely accurate and a second RT-PCR or a different test may be required to confirm the diagnosis.

COVID-19 is a respiratory infection: people with COVID-19 may have a cough, may have difficulty breathing and in severe cases may have COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinicians use chest imaging tests to diagnose COVID-19 disease, when awaiting RT-PCR test results, for example, or when RT-PCR results are negative, and the person has COVID-19 symptoms.

The authors wanted to find out how accurate chest imaging is in diagnosing COVID-19 disease in people with known or suspected infection.

What are chest imaging tests?

X-rays or scans produce an image of the organs and structures (heart, lungs and airways) in the chest. They can detect blockages, inflammation and excess fluid.

  • X-rays (radiography) use a small amount of radiation to produce a 2-D image. They are usually carried out in hospitals using fixed equipment by a radiographer but may also be carried out using a portable machine.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans use a computer to merge multiple X-ray images taken from different angles to produce a 2-D image that can be converted to a 3-D image. They require highly specialised equipment and are carried out in hospital by a specialist radiographer.
  • Ultrasound scans use high-frequency sound waves to produce an image. They can be carried out in hospital or other healthcare settings such as a doctor’s surgery or clinic.

What did the authors do do?

The authors of this Review searched for studies that assessed the accuracy of chest imaging to diagnose COVID-19 disease. Studies could include people with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19, based on the results of an RT-PCR or other test. Studies could be of any design and take place anywhere.

What did they find?

The authors found 84 studies with 8279 people. Studies included either only people with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis (71 studies, involving 6331 people) or both suspected and confirmed COVID-19 (13 studies, involving 1948 people). Infection was mainly confirmed using RT-PCR.

The majority of studies evaluated chest CT. We found studies from all over the world; 78 studies took place in Asia.

Accuracy of chest imaging for diagnosing COVID-19 in people with confirmed infection

On average, chest CT correctly identified infection in 93% of people with confirmed COVID-19 (65 studies, 5759 people). Chest X-ray correctly identified infection in 82% of people with confirmed COVID-19 (nine studies, 682 people). Lung ultrasound correctly identified infection in 100% of people with confirmed COVID-19 (2 studies, 32 people).

Accuracy of chest imaging for diagnosing COVID-19 in people with suspected or confirmed infection

On average, chest CT correctly identified infection in 86% of people who were infected with COVID-19 (13 studies, 2346 people). However, it incorrectly identified infection in 82% of people who were not infected with COVID-19. We did not find any studies that reported data on lung ultrasound.

How reliable are the results?

Studies reported limited information about how they confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, how they recruited participants, and they did not always use robust methods. Most studies only included people with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, so we have little information about the ability of chest imaging to rule out COVID-19 in people who are not infected. Also, studies did not report any pre-existing respiratory conditions that might have affected their results. Finally, 25% of studies were published as preprints, which do not undergo the same rigorous checks as published studies. The authors cannot confidently draw conclusions based on the results from studies included in this review.

What does this mean?

The evidence suggests that chest CT and chest X-ray may be good tests for confirming COVID-19 diagnosis in people who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 infection using another test. However, CT scans may be less accurate in confirming or ruling out infection in people with only suspected COVID-19.

The authors plan to update this review regularly as more research becomes available.

How up-to-date is this review?

The evidence in this Cochrane Review is current to May 2020.

Wednesday, September 30, 2020

COVID-19 Study Register: Cochrane’s ‘one-stop-shop’ for global researchers passes more than 20,000 references...and counting!

Mon, 09/28/2020 - 12:41

Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register gains support from Cochrane Crowd and Elsevier to add records as it passes a new significant milestone -  publishing 20,000 primary study references on COVID-19. 

The Study Register was launched in April 2020 with the aim of supporting rapid and living evidence synthesis by systematic review producers and researchers across the world as well as Cochrane's own work on COVID-19-related Rapid Reviews, Systematic Reviews and Network Meta-Analyses. Five months on, it’s been a source of studies in twelve published Cochrane Reviews, the Australian National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce’s living guidelines and 15 other systematic reviews on COVID-19. 

 It provides a ‘one-stop shop’ for researchers to access all primary studies being published related to COVID-19. Study references are pre-evaluated to meet eligibility for COVID-19 reviews, reducing searching and screening time for author teams. The Register helps systematic reviewers prioritize topics, identify available evidence and produce urgently needed reviews for front-line health professionals, public health policymakers and research teams developing new therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive interventions for COVID-19. 

Since it was set up, new functionality and enhancements have been added to the Register, which now includes: 

  • Increased coverage with >1300 preprint records;
  • Enhanced searching with new filters for publication type filters and studies reporting results; 
  • Automated PubMed search, which now updates daily; and 
  • A pilot Crowd task to screen and describe eligible studies.

 In July, Elsevier and Cochrane partnered to add records to the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, helping to increase the register’s coverage of MECIR mandatory databases and making the register a comprehensive source of studies for review production. 

Cochrane’s Head of Information Technology, Chief Information Officer and project lead, Chris Mavergames, said: “COVID-19 continues to present a formidable challenge for global health researchers. We are pleased to report that our data curation and synthesis tools are now being using in practice to assist in rapidly addressing the most important questions for global decision-makers and our Study Register represents a key pillar in that effort. We are also pleased to announce that, following from our successful pilot Crowd task, today we have launched a new Cochrane Crowd task, COVID Quest, to help identify eligible COVID-19 studies from”

Wednesday, September 30, 2020

Cochrane’s statement to the 58th PAHO Directing Council

Fri, 09/25/2020 - 20:17

Cochrane has submitted a statement to the 58th Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Directing Council.

PAHO, an international public health agency focused on the Americas, serves as a regional office for the World Health Organization (WHO). The PAHO Directing Council is a key meeting that brings together ministers of health, policymakers, technical staff and other stakeholders to decide on the health priorities for collective action in the region. 

Representatives of Cochrane Canada, the Cochrane Iberoamerican Network and the Cochrane US Network are attending the meeting, which is taking place virtually on 28 and 29 September.

Our statement highlights how Cochrane Groups in the PAHO Region are supporting an evidence-informed COVID-19 response and calls on PAHO Member States to provide adequate resources and funding for evidence synthesis as the pandemic continues. The statement will be delivered by Xavier Bonfill, Director of Cochrane Iberoamérica.

The full statement is below.

COVID-19 has emphasized the critical importance of evidence-informed global health policy. Governments, healthcare professionals and researchers in the PAHO Region and worldwide continue to seek answers to questions related to the treatment of patients, and how best to protect populations. 

Cochrane is a global leader in producing high-quality synthesized evidence to inform health decision making. We are working closely with WHO and PAHO by producing Rapid Reviews and living systematic reviews to answer COVID-19-related priority questions. Cochrane has launched and will maintain one of the largest and most sophisticated registries of COVID-19 studies and a living synthesis of COVID-19 study results

Cochrane’s Geographic Groups in the PAHO Region are also active in supporting an evidence-informed COVID-19 response:

  • Cochrane Canada, with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases, Research Methods and Recommendations at McMaster University, has led WHO-commissioned rapid systematic reviews on priority topics. With funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, they are also building a map of living recommendations from high-quality guidelines on COVID-19 that, for decision-makers in the region, can be contextualized. PAHO is a valued partner and contributes the base internacional de guías GRADE (BIGG) as a central source of guidelines.
  • The Cochrane Iberoamerican Network has produced Evidencias COVID-19, an information resource on COVID-19 in Spanish. Cochrane Iberomérica has also integrated over 500 COVID-19 recommendations (in English and Spanish) within DianaSalud, a database containing guidance on the implementation and de-implementation of healthcare interventions based on their clinical value.
  • The Cochrane US Network has developed a COVID-19 repository highlighting the work of its affiliates, including a rapid review on universal screening; affiliate-led reviews contributing to WHO guidelines on breastfeeding and hypertension during COVID-19; and the development of rapid guidelines with professional societies.  

With the pandemic evolving, the questions that policy makers need to address change. We therefore call on PAHO Member States to support evidence-informed decision making by taking action to provide adequate resources and funding for evidence synthesis given the challenges ahead.

Monday, September 28, 2020

Cochrane works with the Association for Healthcare Social Media to celebrate World Evidence Based Healthcare Day

Fri, 09/25/2020 - 19:44

Inaugural World Evidence Based Healthcare Day to be held on 20 October 2020

The Association for Healthcare Social Media (AHSM) is a professional society devoted to the use of social media by healthcare professionals. The multispecialty and multidisciplinary AHSM assists health professionals in utilizing social media platforms to serve as disseminators of accurate health information while doing so responsibly. AHSM members include many of the virtual physicians and nurses of TikTok, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube who are disseminating important healthcare-related information to their audiences.

 Cochrane and six global leaders in evidence-based healthcare have recently launched the inaugural World Evidence Based Healthcare (EBHC) Day, to be held on 20 October 2020. It is an opportunity to create awareness of the need for better evidence to inform healthcare policy, practice and decision making in order to improve health outcomes globally.

Working closely with Cochrane, AHSM is sharing the World EBHC Day with its members and encouraging them to participate by asking them to share posts and videos on their platforms and tag Cochrane. Austin Chiang, MD, MPH, a founding member of the AHSM and the chief medical social media officer at Jefferson Health, in Philadelphia says “World EBHC Day provides an excellent platform for our members to explain exactly what evidence based healthcare is to their audiences, why it is important, and the impact that evidence based healthcare has made. We are excited to collaborate with Cochrane; our members know them as the ‘gold standard’ in consolidating health evidence through systematic reviews and this is an opportunity to explaining to our lay audiences why that is.” 

Dr. Chiang adds, “With the COVID-19 pandemic, everyone is looking for health information online. With additional time spent on social media channels, there is also greater exposure to misinformation and misrepresentation of evidence online. Our members are health professionals that are provided with the tools and training to share health evidence on social media and actively work towards fighting misinformation on social media. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the importance of educating our audiences about evidence based healthcare and the high quality evidence that Cochrane provides.”

Friday, September 25, 2020

Cochrane trains its community on knowledge translation

Fri, 09/25/2020 - 17:30

Free online training module introduces the use knowledge translation in Cochrane 

Cochrane defines knowledge translation (KT) as the process of supporting the use of health evidence from our high quality, trusted Cochrane Reviews by those who need it to make health decisions. KT is an integral part of our strategy to make Cochrane evidence accessible and useful to everybody, while advocating for evidence-informed health care.

A new module, 'Introducing Knowledge Translation in Cochrane' has launched on Cochrane Training. This module aims to strengthen the understanding of what 'knowledge translation' means within Cochrane. It presents information, examples, and stories told by characters in order to explain the concepts presented in Cochrane's Knowledge Translation Framework.


 This learning module is aimed at anyone working within Cochrane, is free to use with a Cochrane account (free to sign up) and will take approximately 1 hour to complete.



Friday, September 25, 2020

Register now: G-I-N COVID-19 pit stop webinars, featuring Cochrane Editor in Chief and members of the Cochrane community

Thu, 09/24/2020 - 19:34

Next week, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N), an official Cochrane partner, will hold a series of online panels on guideline development and implementation – a ‘pitstop in the COVID-19 marathon’ for the guideline community.

The webinars (which will take place via Zoom) will focus on issues related to evidence synthesis and their impact on health recommendations and guidelines that have achieved much greater attention during the COVID-19 pandemic than perhaps ever before.

Several members of the Cochrane community, including Cochrane Editor in Chief, Dr Karla Soares-Weiser, will be participating. Karla will speak at Session 1 on September 30 (full schedule below), which focuses on issues related to preprints – including quality, and integration in systematic reviews and guidelines.

More information about the sessions and how to register are below.

Session 1: Quality of evidence for guidelines and recommendations

30/09/2020 10:00-12 noon (UK Time) (see time in your time zone)

Speakers: Christine Laine (Annals of Internal Medicine), Stuart Spencer (The Lancet), Karla Soares-Weiser (Cochrane) and Gerd Antes (Cochrane Germany)

Moderated by Holger Schunemann (GIN Scientific Committee, McMaster University).

Session 2: Rapid guideline development

30/09/2020 16:00-18:00 (UK Time) (see time in your time zone)

Speakers: Reem Mustafa (University of Kansas Healthcare System), Paul Chrisp (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), Miloslav Klugar (Czech National Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare), Waleed Al-Hazani (Surving Sepsis guidelines, McMaster University) & Adam Cuker (VTE guidelines and COVID).

Moderated by Christine Laine (Annals of Internal Medicine) & Tamara Kredo (Cochrane South Africa).

Session 3: Recommendation mapping

1/10/2020 14:00-16:00 (UK Time) (see time in your time zone)

Speakers: Tamara Kredo (Cochrane South Africa), Dennis Falzon (WHO), John Grove (WHO) & Zach Munn (Joanna Briggs Institute).

Moderated by Miloslav Klugar (Czech National Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare) & Markus Follmann (German Cancer Society).

Session 4: Living Recommendations

2/10/2020 14:00-16:00 (UK Time) (see time in your time zone)

Speakers: Elie Akl (AUB Lebanon), Julian Elliot (Cochrane), Lisa Paddle (Public Health Agency of  Canada), Marina Salvadori (Public Health Agency of Canada), Matthew Tunis (Public Health  Agency of Canada) & Ole Wiechmann (Robert Koch Institute).

Moderated by Holger Schunemann (GIN Scientific Committee, McMaster University), Rodrigo Pardo (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá) & Eddy Lang (University of Calgary and Alberta Health Services).


All sessions are free for G-I-N members; there is a £25 registration fee for non-members (or £75 to register for all four sessions).

Learn more and register on the G-I-N website.

Thursday, September 24, 2020

Cochrane seeks Project Support Officer (ITS)

Thu, 09/24/2020 - 13:59

Specifications: Full Time, Permanent  
Salary: £30,000
Location: London (preferably), Freiburg or Copenhagen
Application Closing Date: 6 October 2020 (At Midnight)

This role is an exciting opportunity to use your experience as a Project Support Officer to make a difference in the field of health care research.  

The Project Support Officer will provide project management support, co-ordination, and administrative support to the Head of IT Services and the ITS department.

The role’s responsibilities will include:

  • Provide administrative support, as required, to the Head of IT Services and the ITS Management Team. For example: arranging meetings and webinars, drafting agendas, meeting notes and documentation, and booking travel.
  • Draft communications for key ITS projects and technology initiatives.
  • Contribute to and manage documentation relating to the Cochrane technology strategy.
  • Coordinate projects with other Central Executive Team (CET) departments.
  • To develop good working relationships and shared working practices with the administrative leads within the CET.
  • Develop a strong working knowledge of Cochrane’s processes and technologies for editorial management and content production and delivery.
  • Identify key activities, areas of over-lap and inter-dependencies between various projects, areas of work, and other Cochrane strategies as they relate to projects and programmes of work within ITS and across the Central Executive Team.
  • Undertake any other duties that may be considered appropriate.

The successful candidate will have:

  • University degree and experience in project management or project management support and/or equivalent experience in a similar role
  • Knowledge of project management and collaboration tools (e.g., Confluence, Jira)
  • Ability to multitask and prioritize work requirements
  • Effective communicator at all levels within and outside the organization
  • The ability to work efficiently and effectively with a geographically-dispersed department and organization
  • Good understanding of organisational effectiveness and of identifying and helping to implement best practice
  • Excellent written, presentation and verbal communication skills
  • Excellent team player
  • Is diligent with attention to detail
  • Willingness to travel as required

Cochrane is a global, independent network of health practitioners, researchers, patient advocates and others, responding to the challenge of making vast amounts of research evidence useful for informing decisions about health. We do this by synthesizing research findings to produce the best available evidence on what can work, what might harm and where more research is needed. Our work is recognised as the international gold standard for high quality, trusted information.

  • For further information on the role and how to apply, please click here
  • The deadline to receive your application is by 6 October 2020.
  • The supporting statement should indicate why you are applying for the post, and how far you meet the requirements, using specific examples. Note that we will assess applications as they are received, and therefore may fill the post before the deadline
  • Interviews to be held on:  w/c 12 October 2020
  • Deadline for applications: 6 October 2020 (12 midnight GMT)
Thursday, September 24, 2020 Category: Jobs

Featured Review: How often should you see your dentist for a check-up?

Mon, 09/21/2020 - 15:32

Recall intervals for oral health in primary care patients

Lead author Patrick Fee explains, “This research is valuable when considering the significant impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic and its effect on dental services worldwide, limiting patient access for dental treatment. Patient access to dental care may remain limited for some time. However, the results of this review provide reassurance to those providing and seeking dental treatment that intervals between check-ups can be extended beyond six months without detriment to the oral health of patients.

This review finds that a risk-based check-up is not detrimental to oral health and is acceptable to patients. There has been a longstanding international debate about the optimal frequency of dental check-ups and this review includes the most current and robust evidence available to investigate this issue.”

Why have a dental check-up?
A dental check-up helps to keep your mouth healthy and lets your dentist see if you have any dental problems. It allows your dentist to deal with any problems early, or even better, to prevent problems from developing. Leaving problems untreated may make them harder to treat in the future.

What happens in a check-up?
At each check-up your dentist will usually: · examine your teeth, gums and mouth; · ask about your general health and if you have had any problems with your teeth, mouth or gums since your last check-up; · advise you about tooth-cleaning habits, and your diet, smoking and alcohol use. · if appropriate, recommend treatment needed for any dental problems. After your check-up, the dentist will recommend a date for your next check-up.

Traditionally, check‑ups are recommended every six months. However, some people are at higher risk of developing dental problems and may need more frequent check-ups, while others may not need check-ups so often.

Why the team did this Cochrane Review
Having check-ups every six months might help to keep your mouth healthy and avoid dental problems in future, but could also lead to unnecessary dental treatments. However, having check-ups less often might let dental problems get worse and lead to difficult and expensive treatment and care. The author team wanted to identify the best time interval to have between dental check-ups.

What did the authors do?
They searched for studies that looked at the effect of different time intervals between dental check-ups. The authors looked for randomised controlled studies, in which people were assigned to different intervals at random. These studies usually give the most reliable evidence. Search date: included evidence published up to 17 January 2020.

What did the authors find?
The authors found two studies with 1736 people who had regular dental check-ups. One study was conducted in a public dental clinic in Norway in children and adults aged under 20 years. It compared 12-monthly and 24-monthly check-ups, and measured results after two years. The other study was in adults at 51 dental practices in the UK. It compared six-monthly, 24‑monthly and risk-based check-ups (where time between check-ups depended on an individual's risk of dental disease), and measured results after four years.

The studies looked at how different intervals between check-ups affected: · how many people had tooth decay; · how many tooth surfaces were affected by decay; · gum disease (percentage of bleeding sites in the gums); and · quality of life (well-being) related to having healthy teeth and gums.

No studies measured other potential unwanted effects. What are the results of the review? In adults, there was little to no difference between six-monthly and risk-based check-ups in tooth decay (number of tooth surfaces affected), gum disease and well-being after four years; and probably little to no difference in how many people had moderate-to-extensive tooth decay.

There was probably little to no difference between 24-monthly and six-monthly or risk-based check-ups in tooth decay (number of people and number of tooth surfaces affected), gum disease or well‑being, and may be little to no difference in how many people had moderate-to-extensive tooth decay.

The authors did not find enough reliable evidence about the effects of 12-monthly and 24-monthly check-ups in children and adolescents after two years. This was because of problems with the way that the study was conducted.

How reliable are these results?
They are confident that there is little to no difference between six‑monthly and risk‑based check-ups in adults for number of tooth surfaces with decay, gum disease and well‑being. They are moderately confident there is little to no difference between 24-monthly check-ups and six-monthly or risk-based check-ups in number of tooth surfaces with decay, gum disease and well-being.

Whether adults see their dentist for a check-up every six months or at personalised intervals based on their dentist's assessment of their risk of dental disease does not affect tooth decay, gum disease, or well-being. Longer intervals (up to 24 months) between check-ups may not negatively affect these outcomes. Currently, there is not enough reliable evidence available about how often children and adolescents should see their dentist for a check-up.

Thursday, October 15, 2020

Making evidence accessible: Goal 2 of Strategy 2020

Mon, 09/21/2020 - 14:38

Cochrane is in the final year of its multi-year strategic plan, Strategy to 2020

Strategy to 2020 has set in motion transformational change in the way Cochrane works at all levels of the organization with the aim of giving us the best chance to achieve our mission. Goal 2 of Strategy to 2020 challenged us to make Cochrane evidence accessible and useful to everybody, everywhere in the world. 

Watch the video below to learn about Cochrane’s knowledge translation activities and the progress we have made toward Goal 2:

We are now developing a new strategy for 2021 onwards, and we want to hear from you! The draft plan is available for your review and comment, with your feedback having the potential to directly contribute to changes before it’s finalized. Let’s collaborate to define Cochrane’s new strategic priorities. 

Monday, September 21, 2020

Cochrane International Mobility - Mari Kinoshita

Mon, 09/21/2020 - 12:32

Cochrane is made up of 11,000 members and over 67,000 supporters come from more than 130 countries, worldwide. Our volunteers and contributors are researchers, health professionals, patients, carers, people passionate about improving health outcomes for everyone, everywhere.

Getting involved in Cochrane’s work means becoming part of a global community. The Cochrane International Mobility programme connects successful applicants with a placement in a host Cochrane Group, learning more about the production, use, and knowledge translation of Cochrane reviews. The prgramme offers opportunities for learning and training not only for participants but also for host staff.

In this series, we profile those that have participated in the Cochrane International Mobility Program and learn more about their experiences.

Name: Mari Kinoshita
Cochrane International Mobility location:
Cochrane Sweden

How did you first learn about Cochrane?
I vaguely recall how I first heard about Cochrane during my medical school years as “the resource for evidence-based medicine”, but I have to confess that I was not familiar with what the group was truly about until recently when I started to get involved in systematic reviews and appreciate its methodology while pursuing my PhD in Perinatal Medicine in Spain and Sweden. Meeting Matteo Bruschettini, the director of Cochrane Sweden, while I was doing one of my PhD projects in Lund (Sweden) was definitely a turning point for me. During a workshop in Lund, I summed up the courage to walk up and talk to him about my interest in Cochrane, and before I knew it, I was doing my CIM from Japan in Sweden, and here I am writing an article for! When I first heard about CIM, I was excited to be a part of a form of collaboration between the two countries, Sweden and Japan.

What was your experience with Cochrane International Mobility?
The “official” one-month period of CIM in Lund was mainly about participating in Cochrane workshops to lay out the foundation of the methodology, and also about joining “in-person” team meetings for a systematic review “Opioids and alpha-2-agonists for analgesia and sedation in newborn infants: a systematic review”, of which the protocol has been recently published. This was all done alongside my PhD project and university courses at Lund University, thanks to the generous flexibility of the CIM program. I dearly miss the quaint university town that I fell in love with, but I feel that the best part of being physically in Lund (where Cochrane Sweden is located) was the warm, welcoming atmosphere of the Cochrane team and the consistent mentorship of Matteo. Matteo guides you through the necessary steps regardless of what your experiences are, and I have been very fortunate to be able to build a great relationship with a mentor whom I hold with great respect and admiration. Moreover, the mobility experience between Sweden and Japan has enabled me to connect with Cochrane Japan and its director, Norio Watanabe. I was also new to Cochrane Japan, but Norio has welcomed me with open arms and a big smile. CIM is often between countries within Europe due to geographical proximity, so if my CIM can contribute in any way to promote collaboration between the Cochrane teams in two of my favorite countries, that itself would be rewarding to me as a way to give back for what I have received from both teams.

What are you doing now in relation to your Cochrane International Mobility experience?
Even after leaving Sweden, I have stayed strongly connected to Cochrane Sweden and currently continuing to work together on a few reviews, including a new Cochrane Neonatal review on opioids for postoperative pain in newborns. We regularly contact each other in the review team through emails and discuss important issues at online meetings; I have also been attending many Cochrane webinars online since there is always more to learn!

Do you have any words of advice to anyone conserving a Cochrane International Mobility experience?
If you are in any bit interested in systematic reviews and evidence-based medicine, CIM is a valuable opportunity that can open many doors – so do not hesitate to reach out! Going to a new country and meeting new people can be daunting, especially if you feel that you do not have experience in the field, but really, the only thing you need to bring with you is yourself and your spark of interest! The rest is for you to find or not find on your journey in Cochrane with the supportive team behind you. How you continue your journey after CIM is totally up to you, and whatever you choose, your CIM experience would definitely have added another page in your one-and-only book. The personalized program is a casual way for anyone to get a glimpse into the worldwide network, and as it has been for me, I am sure that it would end up being only the beginning…



Monday, September 28, 2020

Featured Review: Using mobile technologies to promote communication and management of care between healthcare professionals

Fri, 09/18/2020 - 12:19

Many healthcare workers work alone or have little access to colleagues and specialists. This is a common problem for healthcare workers in rural areas or low‐income countries. One possible solution to this problem is to offer healthcare workers advice and support through mobile technologies that allow healthcare workers to get help from colleagues who are not in the same place. For instance, healthcare workers can contact specialists or colleagues with more experience through a phone or the Internet. Healthcare workers can also use their mobile phones or other mobile devices such as tablets.

This systematic review from Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care looked at if healthcare workers using services through their mobile phones or other mobile devices to communicate with other healthcare workers provide quicker access to healthcare, and improve patient health outcomes. Included in this systematic review are 19 relevant studies, which included more than 5766 people who needed health care. Sixteen studies were from high‐income countries.

Mobile technologies probably slightly decrease the time to deliver health care, as well as the number of face‐to‐face appointments, when compared with usual care, and probably increase the number of people receiving clinical examinations for some conditions, including an eye exam for people with diabetes. Mobile technologies may have little or no impact on healthcare workers' and participants' satisfaction, health status or well‐being.

Daniela Gonçalves-Bradley, lead author of the review says, “This review looks at the evidence for three different healthcare scenarios; primary healthcare workers consulting with hospital specialists, emergency doctors consulting with hospital specialists, and community health workers or home‐care workers consulting with clinic staff. The evidence shows that using mobile phones and devices for the communication between health professionals may improve some outcomes; however our confidence in the effect estimates is limited by the certainty of the evidence. As this is a growing area of work, we hope that there will be more robust studies in a future update that will address data‐sharing and privacy concerns and identify common core outcomes.”

Friday, September 18, 2020

Cochrane Crowd does it again: rapid study identification for a Cochrane Rapid Review

Fri, 09/18/2020 - 11:40

Producing high quality synthesised evidence rapidly in relation to COVID-19 is clearly critical if researchers, clinicians, the public and policy makers are to make headway in understanding and managing this new coronavirus.

One key area being addressed by a Cochrane Rapid Review is: Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID. The initial Rapid Review was published in April 2020. Within months, due to the sheer pace and volume of research being undertaken on COVID-19, an update was needed. The search for new evidence identified an eye-watering 5000 references to assess.
Enter Cochrane Crowd: Cochrane’s amazing community of citizen scientists, healthcare students, professionals and researchers who all work together to identify and describe health research.

The Crowd were tasked with assessing the new search results for potential relevance to the review. This task was more challenging than the usual Cochrane Crowd tasks as they were being asked to identify a range of different study designs (for example, modelling studies and observational studies as well as any relevant interventional studies).

Another key difference with this task was the time limit. Cochrane Crowd tasks for reviews usually come with a two-week deadline. For this task, the Crowd were given just 48 hours.

The Crowd completed the task within 22 hours, making over 17,000 individual classifications on records. Sixty-five crowd contributors took part with forty-five screening enough records to earn named acknowledgment in the review. Senior authors of the review,  Barbara Nußbaumer-Steit and Gerald Gartlehner were very impressed: “Wow! That is amazing” and “That is incredible”.

Cochrane Crowd have been helping to identify studies for Cochrane reviews and for Cochrane’s Central Register of Controlled Trials for some time now. This new task helped to demonstrate the potential for increased Crowd involvement in reviews that include study designs other than randomised trials. It also demonstrated the speed at which this unflappable community can work when faced with important questions that need answering.

For more information about Cochrane Crowd, visit

Friday, September 18, 2020

Can mouthwashes or nasal sprays protect healthcare workers and patients from COVID-19 infection?

Thu, 09/17/2020 - 08:46

Three new reviews have published on mouthwashes/nasal sprays to protect healthcare workers and patients from COVID-19 infection. Healthcare workers are at the forefront of the COVID-19 crisis, with repeated exposure to individuals who are, or may be, infected, and are therefore at risk themselves.

These workers may be especially at risk when undertaking 'aerosol-generating procedures' (AGPs). This is any medical, dental or patient-care procedure that results in the production of airborne particles (aerosols) from the upper aerodigestive tract (mouth, nose, throat, oesophagus) and lower respiratory tract where the virus is shedding. These can remain suspended in the air and travel over a distance. They may cause infection if they are inhaled. Such procedures therefore create the potential for airborne transmission of infection.

This set of three reviews looks at the use of antimicrobial mouthwashes and nasal sprays

  1. by healthcare workers treating patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection;
  2. by patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection and
  3. by patients without suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection, who are undergoing aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs), and the healthcare workers (HCWs) treating them.

The author team, a collaborative team from Cochrane’s Oral Health and Ear, Nose, Throat groups identified no completed studies for inclusion in any of these systematic reviews, which is not surprising given the relatively recent emergence of COVID-19 infection.

However, the authors did identify a number of ongoing studies, which have been recorded and will be monitored for completion with a view to updating the reviews as the results become available.

Read the reviews:

Thursday, September 17, 2020

Cochrane publishes three rapid reviews of the evidence on different public health measures to slow the spread of COVID-19

Wed, 09/16/2020 - 15:24

Cochrane has published an updated special collection of systematic and rapid reviews focused on a range of public health measures to control and prevent the spread of COVID-19. Many countries have adopted combinations of these measures and are faced with the challenge of easing or strengthening each of these measures over the course of the pandemic.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a new virus, SARS-CoV-2, that has spread quickly throughout the world. As there is currently no effective treatment or vaccine for COVID-19 other ways of slowing its spread are needed.

 What’s new in the Cochrane’s Special Collection?

Added to the Special Collection are three rapid reviews of the evidence on measures that aim to prevent potentially infected people from transmitting the virus to healthy people:

  • Quarantinewhere healthy people are separated from other healthy people in case they might have the virus because they either have had contact with a case or have travelled from an area with high transmission rates
  • Travel-related control measures, such as border closures, partial travel restrictions and entry/exist screening
  • Universal screening of people not seeking care for symptoms, either the general population or a targeted population based on their occupation, for example healthcare workers in hospitals and nursing homes.
What do the rapid reviews tell us?
  • Quarantine is important in reducing incidence and mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic
  • Travel control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic may have a positive impact on infectious disease outcomes
  • One-time screening of healthy people looking for symptoms, temperature, international travel history, exposure to known or suspected infected people, or symptoms plus body temperature is likely to miss people who are infected.
What are the limitations of the evidence?

COVID-19 research is rapidly evolving, but the evidence base is still very uncertain. Evidence about the economic and social harms resulting from these measures is lacking. Much of the evidence currently available to help policy makers with public health decisions is based on mathematical modelling, which relies on making assumptions with imperfect data. Some 'real-life' evidence from observational studies is now available, however the certainty of the evidence from this type of study design is generally low or very low because the studies are often poorly designed or conducted.

What are the challenges for decision making?

To maintain the best possible balance of public health measures, decision makers must constantly monitor their outbreak situation and assess the impact of the measures implemented. Future research will help to disentangle the effects of these diverse prevention and control measures and will help determine which measures or combinations of measures may work best while minimising the harms to our communities.

More about the rapid reviews

Does quarantine control coronavirus (COVID-2019) either alone or in combination with other public health measures?

  • Low-certainty evidence from mathematical modelling studies consistently indicates that quarantine is important in reducing the number of people with COVID-19, but the size of the reduction is uncertain. 
  • Estimates range from a minimum reduction in the number of people with the disease of 44%, and a maximum reduction of 96%.

The lead author Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit (Danube University Krems, Austria) said: “We published the first version of this review in April 2020. Since then 22 additional studies on quarantine for COVID-19 have become available. While the number of studies has increased significantly in a short space of time, the evidence base is still limited because most studies on COVID-19 are mathematical modelling studies that make different assumptions on important model parameters. The evidence suggests that implementation of quarantine early on in a pandemic and combining quarantine with other public health measures such as physical distancing, can help slow the spread of COVID-19.  However, it is difficult to determine what combination of measures is the best to reduce the number of cases and deaths.”


Can travel-related control measures contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic?

  • Very low-certainty evidence from modelling studies suggests that when implemented at the beginning of an outbreak, cross-border travel restrictions may lead to a reduction in the number of new cases of between 26% to 90%. 
  • Observational studies of entry and exit screening evaluated different combinations of symptom-based screening, single (and rarely repeated) PCR swab testing and observation during quarantine.
  • Very low-certainty evidence suggests that the proportion of cases detected at the border ranged from 0% to 75%.
  • Entry and exit symptom screening measures on their own are not likely to be effective in detecting enough cases to prevent new cases becoming established within the protected region.
  • A combination of approaches including symptom screening, quarantine, observation and PCR testing may help to more accurately identify positive cases.

Lead author Jacob Burns (Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany) said: “Travel-related control measures are not implemented in a vacuum, and their impact will be influenced by other factors, like the stage of the pandemic, whether community transmission has been established, whether other measures like physical distancing and wearing of facemasks have been implemented. The studies included in our review rarely investigated these aspects.”  


How effective is screening for COVID-19?

  • This review highlights the uncertainty and variation in accuracy of screening strategies.
  • Observational studies evaluated different screening strategies, mainly screening people once rather than repeatedly, and involved either asking about symptoms, international travel, or exposure to a known or suspected case, performing temperature checks, or a rapid point-of-care test.
  • Some studies combined screening for symptoms and temperature checks. With any screening strategy a high proportion of infected individuals may be falsely identified as negative.
  • Future population-based screening studies will add substantially to our understanding of the effectiveness and accuracy of screening for COVID-19.

Lead author Meera Viswanathan (RTI International, North Carolina, USA) said: “We are unsure whether combined screenings, repeated symptom assessment, or rapid laboratory tests are useful. Because screening can miss people who are infected, public health measures such as face coverings, physical distancing, and quarantine for those who may have contact with an infected person, continue to be very important.”

Learn more about Cochrane COVID-19 evidence   Wednesday, September 16, 2020

First World Evidence Based Healthcare Day to take place on 20 October 2020

Mon, 09/14/2020 - 18:11

Today Cochrane and six global leaders in evidence-based healthcare, led by JBI, are launching a worldwide initiative to create awareness of the need for better evidence to inform healthcare policy, practice and decision making in order to improve health outcomes globally.

The inaugural World Evidence-based Healthcare (EBHC) Day will be held on 20 October 2020 and spotlights the global impact of EBHC on health research, policy, practice and patient outcomes.

In 2020, EBHC is a worldwide movement with hundreds of organisations and tens of thousands of individuals working tirelessly towards improving the science and practice of EBHC for the same aim: to improve health outcomes. 

“World EBHC day is an opportunity for collaboration in the ever-evolving sphere of global health and will provide a platform to discuss and debate the challenges and innovations in evidence-informed approaches to improving health outcomes globally” says Bianca Pilla, World EBHC Day Committee Chair.

The need and demand for EBHC continues to grow rapidly due to increased availability of digital information, better informed patients, introduction of new technologies, increased healthcare costs, complex adaptive health systems and ageing populations. At the same time researchers, policymakers and health professionals continue to grapple with the 17-year research-to-practice gap of implementing clinical research evidence into practice. 

“As a global evidence community, we are working together to close this gap and overcome barriers to advance the use of reliable research evidence to address some of the world’s most serious health challenges,” said Bianca Pilla. 

In 2020, the importance of having the ability to utilise the best available evidence has been highlighted by the rapid implementation of effective hand washing and the correct use of PPE to help fight the spread of COVID-19. Around the world scientists are working together to develop vaccines, researchers have identified and shared hundreds of viral genome sequences, more than 200 clinical trials have been launched, and international evidence synthesis organisations are rapidly synthesising the emerging evidence to assist policymakers in making informed decisions.

“Promoting evidence-informed decision-making is central to Cochrane’s mission and future sustainability, and we are delighted to be coming together with the global evidence community to launch World EBHC Day to advocate for this vital issue.

“The COVID-19 pandemic has really highlighted the critical importance of evidence-informed global health policy and practice,” said Karla Soares-Weiser, Cochrane Editor in Chief.

About World Evidence-Based Healthcare Day 2020

World Evidence-Based Healthcare (EBHC) Day is held on 20 October each year, starting in 2020. It is a global initiative that raises awareness of the need for better evidence to inform healthcare policy, practice and decision making in order to improve health outcomes globally. It is an opportunity to participate in debate about global trends and challenges, but also to celebrate the impact of individuals and organisations worldwide, recognising the work of dedicated researchers, policymakers and health professionals in improving health outcomes.

The theme for World EBHC Day 2020 is ‘from evidence to impact’, with a call to individuals and organisations worldwide to share their experiences of how their work in EBHC has contributed to impact in health research, policy, practice, guidelines or patient outcomes. 

For more information, please visit: 

Monday, September 14, 2020

Editor in Chief to present on panel about COVID-19 transmission on September 18

Fri, 09/11/2020 - 21:13

Cochrane Library Editor in Chief Karla Soares-Weiser will present on Friday, September 18, as part of an expert panel hosted by the University of New Mexico addressing the question, "What have we learned about COVID-19 transmission?" 

The panel discussion, moderated by WHO Chief Scientist Soumya Swaminathan, is part of the ECHO COVID-19 GLOBAL CONVERSATIONS series from Project Echo at the University of New Mexico in the United States. The other distinguished panelists include Jay Butler, Deputy Director, US Infectious Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; George Gao, 王晓琪 Director-General, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC); Marion Koopmans, Head of Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC. 

The session is open to all interested; it will be held September 18, 08:00 - 09:30 MDT (14:00-15:30 GMT).

Monday, September 14, 2020

Featured Review: Education and training for preventing and minimizing workplace aggression directed toward healthcare workers

Fri, 09/11/2020 - 19:54

Do education and training programs reduce aggressive behavior toward healthcare workers?

What is aggressive behavior?

The International Labour Organization uses the term "workplace violence" defined as "any action, incident or behaviour that departures from reasonable conduct in which a person is threatened, harmed, injured in the course of, or as a direct result of, his or her work". Experiencing aggressive behavior at work can affect people's ability to do their job well, can cause physical and mental health problems, and can also affect home life. Aggressive behavior may lead to absences from work; some people might leave their job if they experience aggressive behavior.

Why do this Cochrane Review?

Aggressive behavior exhibited by patients and their families, friends, and carers is a serious problem for healthcare workers. It may affect the quality and safety of the care that healthcare workers can provide.

Education and training programs have been developed to try to reduce—or eliminate—aggressive behavior at work. These programs are intended to teach and train healthcare workers about:

  • their organization's policies and procedures;
  • how to assess risks; and
  • strategies to control or reduce the chances—and effects—of experiencing aggressive behavior.

What did authors do?

The authors searched for studies that investigated how well education and training programs prevented or reduced aggression toward healthcare workers.

They included randomized controlled studies, in which the programs that people received were decided at random and studies in which effects of a program were measured before and after among people who completed the program and in another group of people who did not take part.

They wanted to know if education and training programs could:

  • reduce the number of incidents of aggressive behavior in healthcare workplaces;
  • improve healthcare workers' knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward aggressive behavior; and
  • reduce any personal adverse (unwanted or negative) effects noted among healthcare workers who experienced aggressive behavior.

Evidence published up to June 2020 was included.

What they found

Authors found nine studies including 1688 healthcare workers (including healthcare support staff, such as receptionists) who worked with patients and patients' families, friends, and carers. These studies compared the effects of receiving an education and training program to the effects of not receiving such a program.

Studies were conducted in hospitals or healthcare centers (four studies), in psychiatric wards (two studies), and in long‐term care centers (three studies) in the United States, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Taiwan.

All programs combined education with training provided either online (four studies) or face‐to‐face (five studies). In eight studies, the people taking part were followed for up to three months (short‐term), and in one study for over one year (long‐term).

What are the results of this review?

Education and training programs did not reduce the number of reports of aggressive behavior toward healthcare workers (five studies), possibly because these programs made healthcare workers more likely to report these incidents.

An education and training program might improve healthcare workers’ knowledge of aggressive behavior in the workplace in the short term (one study), but it is uncertain whether this would be a long‐term effect (one study).

Education programs might improve healthcare workers' attitudes toward aggressive behavior in the short term (five studies), although these results varied depending on the type and length of the program provided.

Education programs might not affect healthcare workers' skills in dealing with aggressive behavior (two studies) and might not affect whether unwanted or negative personal effects were noted after healthcare workers experienced aggressive behavior (one study).

How reliable are these results?

The authors are not confident in the results of this review because these results were reported from a small number of studies—some with small numbers of participants—and because some studies showed large differences in results. They identified problems involving the ways some studies were designed, conducted, and reported. These results are likely to change if further evidence should become available.

Key message

Although an education and training program might increase healthcare workers' knowledge and positive attitudes, such a program might not affect the number of incidents of aggressive behavior that healthcare workers experience.

More studies are needed, particularly in healthcare workplaces with high rates of aggressive behavior.

Friday, September 11, 2020

Cochrane seeks Assistant Editor (Maternity Cover)

Fri, 09/11/2020 - 09:58

This role is an exciting opportunity to make a difference in the field of health care research. 

The Assistant Editor will support the Cochrane's central editorial team with editorial and publishing activities.

Responsibilities include:

  • Managing editorial workflows for selected content for the Cochrane Library from submission through to publication, working with authors, editors, and production teams, to ensure that content is published on time and to a high standard.
  • Working with editorial colleagues and our publisher to support the regular publication cycles for Cochrane
  • Library-related products, completing tasks needed to ensure products publish on schedule.
  • Using content management systems to edit and publish supporting content and documentation on the
  • Cochrane Library and other Cochrane internal and public-facing websites.
  • Helping respond to editorial and publishing queries from the Cochrane community

We are looking for a self-motivated and highly organized individual who is able to work effectively, collaboratively and remotely with diverse contacts around the world. The successful candidate will also have:

  • Degree in relevant field or equivalent experience.
  • Previous experience in a similar editorial or publishing role
  • An ability to develop and maintain working relationships with key stakeholders.
  • Strong organization and prioritization skills.
  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills.
  • Proficient level IT skills, including but not limited to Word, Excel, and PowerPoint; and able to quickly adopt to different IT packages being used by the organization such as website content management systems (e.g. Drupal, Confluence).
  • Ability to work methodically and accurately with attention to detail.
  • A pro-active approach to problem-solving.

Cochrane is a global, independent network of health practitioners, researchers, patient advocates and others, responding to the challenge of making vast amounts of research evidence useful for informing decisions about health. We do this by synthesizing research findings to produce the best available evidence on what can work, what might harm and where more research is needed. Our work is recognised as the international gold standard for high quality, trusted information.

For further information on the role and how to apply, please click here.  The deadline to receive your application is by 17th September 2020.  The supporting statement should indicate why you are applying for the post, and how far you meet the requirements, using specific examples. Note that we will assess applications as they are received, and therefore may fill the post before the deadline.

  • Deadline for applications: 20th September 2020 (12 midnight GMT)
  • Interviews to be held on: W/C 21st September 2020 (TBC)
Friday, September 11, 2020

Cochrane Rapid Review investigates the effectiveness of screening for COVID-19

Thu, 09/10/2020 - 18:18

How effective is screening for COVID-19?

Why does screening matter?

Screening aims to identify a condition in people who may not be showing any symptoms. Some people may have the COVID-19 virus but appear healthy or have only mild symptoms. It is important to identify infected people so they can stay away from others and seek appropriate care. Incorrectly identifying COVID-19 in healthy people could lead to unnecessary self-isolation and further tests. Incorrectly identifying no infection in infected people could spread the virus.

Screening for COVID-19 can include temperature checks, or asking about international travel or contact with COVID-19 cases, or rapid tests. Screening can occur over the telephone, online, or in person, in homes, clinics, workplaces, airports or schools.

What did the review study?

The author team wanted to identify:

  • the benefits and negative effects of screening apparently healthy people for COVID-19 infection
  • whether screening can identify those with and without the virus correctly.

To answer these questions rapidly, the authors shortened some steps of the normal Cochrane Review process. They are confident these changes do not affect the overall conclusions.

What did the author team do?

They looked for studies that screened people who had not sought care for potential COVID-19 symptoms.

This review includes evidence up to May 2020.

Key results

The authors found 22 studies; 17 assessed people (cohort studies) and five were computer-generated models (modelling studies). Studies took place in USA, Europe, and Asia.

Benefits and negative effects

Two modelling studies reported on the benefits and negative effects of screening. One suggested that asking about symptoms at airports may slightly slow, but not stop, the importation of infected people.

Another model reported that weekly or biweekly screening of healthcare workers may reduce transmission to patients and other healthcare workers in emergency departments.

No studies reported on negative effects of screening.

Identification of infected people

Seventeen cohort studies and three modelling studies reported on whether screening can correctly identify those with and without the virus. Studies varied widely in the baseline level of COVID-19, settings, and methods. All cohort studies compared screening strategies to a ‘gold standard’ test called RT-PCR.

Cohort studies

All screening strategies (17 studies, 17,574 people), incorrectly identified:

  • between 20 and 100 out of 100 infected people as healthy
  • between 0 and 38 people out of 100 healthy people as infected

 Asking about symptoms (13 studies, 16,762 people ), incorrectly identified:

  • between 40 to 100 out of 100 infected people as health
  • between 0 to 34 out of 100 healthy people as infected

Temperature measurements, asking about international travel, exposure to known infected people and exposure to known or suspected infected people (6 studies, 14,741 people), incorrectly identified

  • between 77 and 100 out of 100 infected people as health
  • between 0 and 10 out of 100 healthy people as infected

 Asking about symptoms plus temperature measurement (2 studies, 779 people), incorrectly identified:

  • between 31 and 88 out of 100 infected people as health
  • between 0 to 10 people out of 100 healthy people as infected

There was insufficient evidence from two small studies on rapid laboratory tests and repeated symptom assessment to tell how accurate they were in identifying healthy and infected people.

Modelling studies

Three studies modelled entry and exit screening in airports. One study missed 70% of infected travellers. Another detected 90% of infections, but used an unrealistic scenario. The third used very unreliable methods so the authors cannot use evidence from this study.

How confident are we in the results of the studies?

Our confidence in these findings is limited because most studies did not describe their screening methods clearly, some found very few cases of infections and the types of participants and settings varied greatly, making it difficult to judge whether the results apply broadly.

Authors’ conclusions

One-time screening in apparently healthy people is likely to miss people who are infected. The author team are unsure whether combined screenings, repeated symptom assessment, or rapid laboratory tests are useful.

As more people become infected, screening will identify more cases. However, because screening can miss people who are infected, public health measures such as face coverings, physical distancing, and quarantine for those who are apparently healthy, continue to be very important.

Lead author Meera Viswanathan (RTI International, North Carolina, USA) said: “We are unsure whether combined screenings, repeated symptom assessment, or rapid laboratory tests are useful. Because screening can miss people who are infected, public health measures such as face coverings, physical distancing, and quarantine for those who may have contact with an infected person, continue to be very important.”

Tuesday, September 15, 2020